A Brief History of the Marque
Perhaps the first monowheel (Dynasphere, or sfera mobile) was the Garavaglia of 1904, powered by a vertical single-cylinder engine with belt drive to the wheel. It appeared at the 1904 Turin Salone, and possibly also at the Milan Show of that year.
With a diameter of two metres, everything is contained inside the wheel - engine, steering, drive mechanism, pilot's seat and the rider.
"The picturesque machine shown below was shown at the Milan Exposition by the House of Garavaglia. It was, it appears, a genuine success. The principle is easily understood by examining the figure. The big tyre with its rim fitted internally with ball-bearings, upon which the fixed frame sits, which supports both the driver of this strange vehicle, and the petrol engine; the rim of the tyre is moreover toothed on the side, and engages with the pinion of the engine; this can be seen at the bottom right of the picture. In sum, the mobile tyre rolls around the built fixed engine."
From " La Vie de l'Automobile " 1904, p260
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